TOPOGRAPHY and VEGETATION
Relief. Set in a depression intramontane oriented South-North relied on volcanic mountains, and you have the Gutai Ţibleşului Lăpuşului and opens to the South over Boiului plateau and the peak of Breaza, the Valley of the Someşul CALD River and the massif to the West-Country Preluca Lăpuşului is through a relief with a rare picturesque scenery, varied and morphologically complex in its geological composition. Târgu Lăpuş River is located in the north-western part of the basin of Transylvania , called \"The Lapus ', with a total area of 918 km ² and located in the middle basin of the river and the village, behind the Valley dug into the mountain, with maximum altitude Pandey of Hilly Terrain 500 m, with steep peaks, smooth and deforested, given the altitudes of 450-550 m, intensely fragmented by a dense network of river valleys, flanked by meadows 4-5 levels of terraces prints dominant note.
La contact with the surrounding mountain areas lies calacei (Vima Rohia and in the South) or scrap the Piedmont (Northern Tribe (Piedmont)). It is a land of forests, subalpine meadows, pastures and orchards, crop land only at the bottom of the valleys. The geographical configuration, which has led in turn to the basic economic structure of the region is given by the slope on which the line descends from the mountains to the South, valleys and vâlcelele whereby EC waters flow from these mountains the Village River, the longest river of Maramures County, not-too-high hills which separate the valleys of the irregular rhythms , what geographers call Şatrei (Piedmont) and Culmea BrezaDepresiunea Lăpuşului is bounded:
-Şatrei to the North and the mountains of Lăpuşului (Piedmont);
East Muscelele Năsăudului over înşeuarea (521m);
South Peak Breaza (Breaza Vf. 974m) and Levi (777m), over which there are two înşeuări, Măgoaja, Coroieni and connection with the area;-
Dejului West is Massive and the Preluca West Plateau
Boiului;-in the Northwest over the Hill Gravel, communicates with the depression Depression. Copalnic Lăpuşului consists of several distinct subunits:
A) low area, located on the Centre, where you will find the large Village and river where the river is called Floodplain and alea (Furrow-Romanian Lăpuşul).
B) area, slopes, hills and interfluviilor. In interfluviile are right, Lăpuşului generally lower (450 m-500 m) and is presented in two aspects
culmi: extended parallel to the rivers, forming a single unit interfluviu (those of r. Valley Village-ungureni-v. Libotin); short
cele, easily smoothed out, perpendicular to the river Lăpuş, with flat, elongated and slightly arched as the hydrographic network (Libotinului peak and Dobricului).
Pe left Lăpuşului two subunits:
-surface, what Vârtoapelor towards reaching the climax of Breaza, and North it borders with the brow Ridge limestone Eocene;
Munceilor-surface, at Valley high, is far away from you, highly fragmented , having narrow peaks with heights of 500 m-600 m, developed the strategy that leans toward the Hida River Lăpuş.
Vegetation. Woody vegetation is beech forests that cover large areas from hilly region plus the clumps of oak forests, hornbeam, maple, poplar, birch, beech and sessile oak. At the edge of the forest is home to a large number of species of shrubs: rosehips, Hazel, Blackthorn, Buckthorn, corni, etc. Along valleys meets red alder, wicker and shock. Grassy plants occur more in the form of grassland in entering: white clover, sedge, şoricelulu tail, horsetail, firuţa, Tall Fescue, etc. The surrounding mountains are rich in conifers: spruce, FIR, pine, shrubs and protected: mountain lilac, smârdar, cranberry and Juniper. As a rarity among Peteritea locality and Vima Tulip exists a motley-kind nationwide.
. Animals deciduous forests include species of interest: hunting wild boar, bear, Fox, deer, marten, eagle owl, Hawk, gaiţa, chaffinch, pheasant, etc. Fânaţe and pastures through living a lot of insects and butterflies that form the microfauna. Ihtiologic Fund of Lăpuşului is rich in examples of: broad snout, Chub, Pike and barbel. The most common reptiles are: Snake, Adder, salamander and the lizard.
Hidrografie. The Lăpuş River is drained, which is the longest river of the Maramures County-114 km, taking care to-and the waters of volcanic Mountains Ignis mountains-Mel-Tibles, Breaza and peak from Pandey. Lapusul Springs sub vf. Văratic, at about 1200 m, and flows into the Someş River, at 148m, after which runs through the basin Surface is 114km. of 1820 km2 and has an asymmetrical, being developed on the right. The Lăpuş River Valley receives the following tributaries on the left: Rohia, Ivy, Said, Rohia. tributaries on the right, Libotinul and Dobricul, have considerable debt having a strong underground food from
Clima.. Lăpuşului depression is characterized by a temperate continental climate transition, with differentiation between the East and West. In the East, the mountains, the region is under the influence of the subpolar air masses, while the West prevails a moderate continental climate with character, with oceanic influences. Specific climate zone of the village Fair city fall moderately continental climate. This type of climate arises from its position within the territory and the Mainland, respectively, of the arrangement, as well as from general circulation of air from the West, Northwest,
De. otherwise the village Fair city, due to relief (major) nearby has a topoclimat shelter, with harsh winters, blizzards and without more moderate summers (heat), even cool. Hydrological rainfall have the lead role in forming the river Lăpuş, with values that oscillate between 950 mm-1380 mm. Average runoff is about 500 mm while the average flow furrow is 10 m ³\/sec. the largest Quantity of drained water is spring 40-42, winter season 26-30. In fall lowest values occur of debts. Great waters frequently occur in March, maximum flow rates can have values of 580m ³
Debitele\/sec. minimum fall may reach values of 0, 35 m ³\/sec. the first snow falls in depression in late October. Average duration of the interval with possible snow is 50 and have 75 days. Snow thickness averaging 70 80 cm. and have the average number of days with snow cover in the intramontane depressions is 80 to 120 days, and the situation in the Valley is 70 Lăpuşului you 80 days. Arrangements at the level of the territory and the area analyzed is determined by the main position and sequence of the various formations barice crossing Europe.
Temperatura multiannual average atop Breaza is 4 to 6 C, in the Village of 6 C 8 on front the front Valley Lăpuşului 8 90 C, and Târgu Lăpuş is 7.40 C January mean temperature values on top of Reigate-4 you-6 C in the depression-4 you-3 C, and Târgu Lăpuş is 3.4-C, in July the average temperature is atop the Reigate 16 front 18 C in depression is you 20 C, 18 and Târgu Lăpuş is 19.30 C.
Hydrography: rivers, valleys, lakes, groundwaters
Depresiunea is drained by the Lăpuş River, which is the longest river of the Maramures County-114 km, taking care to-and the waters of volcanic Mountains Ignis mountains-Mel-Tibles, Breaza and peak from Pandey. Lapusul Springs sub vf. Văratic, at about 1200 m, and flows into the Someş River, at 148m, after which runs through the basin Surface is 114km. of 1820 km2 and has an asymmetrical, being developed on the right.
the Lăpuş River Valley receives the following tributaries on the left: Rohia, Ivy, Said, Rohia. tributaries on the right, Libotinul and Dobricul, have considerable debt having a strong supply from underground
Hidrologic (Piedmont), rainfall have the lead role in forming the river Lăpuş, with values that oscillate between 950 mm-1380 mm.
Scurgerea average is around 500 mm while the average flow furrow is 10 m ³\/sec.
Cantitatea most drained water is spring 40-42 winter season, 26-30. In fall lowest values occur of debts. Great waters frequently occur in March, maximum flow rates can have values of 580m ³\/sec. minimum Rate of fall can reach values of 0, 35 m ³\/sec.
Apele groundwater in the region studied are deep waters and groundwater. The deep waters are in permeable sedimentary rocks. Among them are found and carbonated waters (mineral). The terraces are of course Lăpuşului, groundwater in the rocks to their coarse lip. These waters have high enough hydrostatic pressure levels sometimes reaching only 1, 5 m of the surface, presenting an easy character pilot needs.
Jude subsoil law Maramures is known as one rich in ferrous and non-ferrous ores. Mineral waters in the area (local name \"borcuturi ') were exploited as early as the 1930s. Stoiceni village is famous for its mineral waters recommended cure for diseases, metabolic, gastro-intestinal, allergic States. the area of Badr lies with water springs flows.
Solurile ground country Lăpus presents a vertical etajare and belong to the class cambisulurilor, cambisoils and
Clasa. argiluvisolurilor Brown soils types includes argiloaluviale, brune luvice and luvisoluri is found on hillsides and geography , thickness 1.2-2 m, colour ranging from grey to red-yellow area in depth, fertility is reduced for agricultural crops and broadleaf forests built and fruit trees.
Substratul parental is marns, sandstones and deluviile.
Clasa acid spodosols with Brown and Brown meet in eumezobazice Hills region, that borneaza depression (Gravel Hill, Preluca Massif Breaza, peak) with a thickness of 1-1.6 m, colour is brown-negrecioasa, up to brown yellow-yellow in depth, fertility is reduced for agricultural crops, grassland middle and good for meadows and deciduous Woods.
meadows rivers and their terraces are well-developed alluvial soils, which in some sectors in which the aquifer layer is little depth, a gleyed soil horizon specific there are also hydromorphic. Have a fertility redicata being the best for farming, being soils developed on terraces.
Pe inmlastinire-affected lands, there are also hydromorphic soils develop, in particular on the Meadow River L (Lahore, sedge). Here were performed and drainage works were integrated circuit.
Principalele soil types in the County of Maramureş are related to the two forms of geographical units, the mountain and the depression.
The soils are alluvial Lăpuşului and coluviale.
Procesul of alluvial, which leaves on the ground, the ooze hydro alluvial soil enriching nutrients, as well as to the smooth supply of the plants with water, factors that maintain a high fertility. Those with good drainage are used in agriculture where most crop plants are giving big productions and located in close proximity to water courses can be arranged for irrigation.
the side and especially valleys at the foot of the slope and on account of material eroded and transported water from the mountainsides were formed coluviale soils. They are used as arable land.
slopes greater than 15 ° appear strong and excessive eroded soil where they meet the full range of the phenomena of erosion (from washing the surface and up to excessive erosion to remove the surface bedrock).
Valea Lăpuşului is surrounded by Brown podzolic soils. These soils have a natural medium fertility and are used as the ground for crops, pastures, meadows and plantations with trees the SV-ul podzolic soils Lăpuşului Depression find and argilo-iluviale. The effect of high acidity and low nutrient content, they belong to the category of soils with low fertility. They are used as arable lands, pastures and orchards. Apple orchards are planted almost exclusively on podzolic soils Lăpuşului, Dumbrava.
Dobricu and argilice soils have dark Stoiceni.
Acestea are part of the most fertile soil, rich in humus and nitrogen with weak acidic reaction. Although it works relatively slowly, it lends itself to most large plants in culture. On the slopes of însoriţi and the older James these soils have suffered more intense washing with the value of the slope is greater and more unreasonable soil worked. In some cases the degradation occurs through landslides (the slopes right Lăpuşului). I. Substances useful minerals and rocks
1. Natural aggregates (gravel and sand)
Se found on the river L between Raf and Racal, where there are several gravel pits works, natural aggregates were filed in connection with the floods and they are used in construction in the rough, and after a primary. From Midway, morphologically, are represented by sand and gravel beaches on both sides of the river L, with generally weak bumps without topsoil cover.
Elementele from gravel and sands are made up mainly of metamorphic rocks, sedimentary rocks and eruptive rocks from, as well as a granular mixture of sand, with dimensions of 0,2-0,5 mm, after sorting material corresponds to the use of standards for use as agegat for different brands of concrete or other utilities in civil construction. Industrial or construction of roads. 2. Sedimentary limestone
identified three points which have been made for low scale and were used for the construction, repair and
Aflorimentele intretinarea local roads. can be found on the Hill of Gravel in the Valley of Dobritanului-Darling and excavated Stoiceni. 3. Limestone and dolomite Crystal
Ivirile of crystalline limestones and Dolomites are associated with crystalline massif Pandey and crystalline Islands Badr and Inau.
Aceste are located as follows: unespected appearances
Cetatele Hill-Cornilor Hill Cufoaia
Utilizarea Inau Hill is as crushed stone, mosaic and granulators terasit. 4. Pergmatitele
Pergmatitele feldspatice can be used in various industries such as getting white cements, ceramics industry to obtain glazes and ceramic masses networks. Are widely developed in crystalline lens and in \"Islands Preluca crystalline ' Badr and Inau, but formed bodies of relatively small size and require a selective exploitation rights.
Principalele perimeters are:
bentonite mine Racal-Racal Hill
Pe bentonite territory there is a village zacamant of Racal bentonite whose operation was sistata. Bentonite is used in the cement industry, the white paper, ceramics, rubber, pilariei, ca
decolorante. earths mineral water
Pe Birmingham City RADIUS have identified a number of 15 sources of mineral waters, three of which only charge.
Apele trace minerals may be included in the category of natural mineral waters and waters medicinals.
Souces sources are:
Cufoaia-Great Valley-water-oligominerala , Hot Springs;
Valley Dragoiasa-Badr-alkaline water, carbonated, teroasa hipotona; Borcutel-
-Baile Stoiceni-alkaline water, carbonated, iztona;
Stoiceni Bath-water-sulphate, sulfur hipotona;
-oligominerala-Sedge, carbonated water; water-Sedge-
carbonated, ferruginous;-Badr-carbonated water, calcium, sulfur, 9, ferugnoasa.
metal Substances 1. Zacamantul of iron and manganese from Racal
Este garrisoned in the Crystal cists, contents are 21-23Fe; 18-19Mn; 21-23SiO4. Ore is used in iron and steel industry. The activity was sistata.